Migrating from v4.x to v5.x

See issues and pull requests done in v5.

New Features

1. DoNotMapClrType attribute can now be placed on the graph type or the CLR type

When using the .AddClrTypeMappings() builder extension method, GraphQL.NET scans the specified assembly for graph types that inherit from ObjectGraphType<T> and adds a mapping for the CLR type represented by T with the graph type it matched upon. It skips adding a mapping for any graph type marked with the [DoNotMapClrType] attribute. In v5, it will also skip adding the mapping if the CLR type is marked with the [DoNotMapClrType] attribute.

2. Input Extensions support

Extensions deserialized from GraphQL requests can now be set on the ExecutionOptions.Extensions property and passed through to field resolvers via IResolveFieldContext.InputExtensions. Note that standard .NET dictionaries (such as Dictionary<TKey, TValue>) are thread-safe for read-only operations. Also you can access these extensions from validation rules via ValidationContext.Extensions.

3. Improved GraphQL-Parser

GraphQL.NET v5 uses GraphQL-Parser v8. This release brought numerous changes in the parser object model, which began to better fit the latest version of the published official GraphQL specification. GraphQL-Parser v8 has a lot of backward incompatible changes, but you are unlikely to come across them if you do not use advanced features.

4. IGraphQLSerializer interface with JSON deserialization support

IGraphQLSerializer.ReadAsync is implemented by the GraphQL.SystemTextJson and GraphQL.NewtonsoftJson libraries. It supports deserialization of any type, with special support for the GraphQLRequest class. It also supports deserializing to a IList<GraphQLRequest>, which will deserialize multiple requests or a single request (with or without the JSON array wrapper) into a list.

When calling the AddSystemTextJson or AddNewtonsoftJson extension method to the IGraphQLBuilder interface, the method will register the IGraphQLSerializer and IGraphQLTextSerializer interfaces with the appropriate serialization engine. These interfaces handle both serialization and deserialization of objects.

This makes it so that you can write JSON-based transport code independent of the JSON serialization engine used by your application, simplifying the most common use case, while still being configurable through your DI framework.

You can also use IGraphQLTextSerializer.ReadNode to deserialize a framework-dependent JSON element node, stored within an object, into a specific type. The specific serialization engine you are using may have additional Read members as would be expected for that library.

Be aware that System.Text.Json defaults to case-sensitive deserialization, while Newtonsoft.Json defaults to case-insensitive deserialization. However, the supported data models (such as GraphQLRequest and OperationMessage) will always deserialize with case-sensitive camelCase deserialization. You can write your own data classes which will behave in the default manner of the serializer's configuration. You can configure the serializer to use camelCase for all properties by default. You can also tag properties with serializer-specific attributes to change deserialization behavior, such as adding a JsonPropertyName attribute to a data member to override its serialized property name.

Specific support is provided for serializing and deserializing to the following data models:

Class Notes
ExecutionResult Only serialization is supported
ExecutionError Only serialization is supported
IList<GraphQLRequest> Other common collection variations, such as IEnumerable<> or List<> , are also supported
OperationMessage Payload is an object and can be deserialized to GraphQLRequest via ReadNode

Note that when deserializing a IList<GraphQLRequest>, and when the JSON data is a single request rather than a list of requests, the request will be deserialized into a list or array of a single item. For example, {"query":"{ hero }"} deserializes into new[] { new GraphQLRequest { Query = "{ hero }" }}.

5. IGraphQLTextSerializer interface to support serialization to/from strings.

IGraphQLTextSerializer.Serialize and IGraphQLTextSerializer.Deserialize support serializing objects to and from string values. For the GraphQL.SystemTextJson and GraphQL.NewtonsoftJson libraries, these serialize and deserialize to JSON strings.

6. AutoRegisteringObjectGraphType and AutoRegisteringInputObjectGraphType enhancements

These two classes now provide a range of customizable behavior for data models without the need for creating individual graph types for each data model. New for v5, fields' names and graph types can be customized by applying attributes to the respective property, such as is shown in the below example:

// graph type: AutoRegisteringObjectGraphType<Person>

class Person
    public int PersonId { get; set; }

    public string Name { get; set; }

    public int Age { get; set; }

    [Description("Employee's job position")]
    public string? Title { get; set; }

Nullable reference type attribute interpretation

When the CLR type has nullable reference type annotations, these annotations are read and interpreted by GraphQL.NET when constructing the graph type. For instance, this is how the following CLR types are mapped to graph types after schema initialization:

CLR type Graph type
string? StringGraphType
string NonNullGraphType<StringGraphType>
List<int> NonNullGraphType<ListGraphType<NonNullGraphType<IntGraphType>>>

CLR type mappings registered in the schema are supported as well.

In addition to the above, if the [Id] attribute is marked on the property, it will override the interpreted graph type such as in the following examples:

CLR type marked with [Id] Graph type
string? IdGraphType
string NonNullGraphType<IdGraphType>
List<int> NonNullGraphType<ListGraphType<NonNullGraphType<IdGraphType>>>

Custom attributes can also be added to perform the following behavior changes:

  • Override detected underlying CLR type
  • Override detected nullability or list nullability state
  • Override chosen underlying graph type

Method and argument support for AutoRegisteringObjectGraphType<T> instances

Methods will be detected and added to fields on the graph. Asynchronous methods and data loader methods are supported such as shown in the below example:

CLR type Graph type
Task<string> NonNullGraphType<StringGraphType>
IDataLoaderResult<Person?> PersonGraphType

The above example assumes that the Person CLR type was mapped to PersonGraphType in the schema CLR type mappings.

Arguments are also added as query arguments to the field, and recognize default values and other attributes set on the parameter. Certain argument types are recognized and treated special; special fields do not add a query argument to the field:

Argument type Value passed to the method
IResolveFieldContext The field resolver's context; useful in advanced scenarios
CancellationToken The cancellation token from the resolve context
Any, tagged with [FromServices] Pulls the service of the argument type from the RequestServices property of the resolve context

Also note:

  • Asynchronous methods that end in Async have the "Async" suffix removed from the default field name.
  • Methods tagged with [Scoped] (when using GraphQL.MicrosoftDI) create a service scope for the field resolver's execution.

This allows for code such as the following:

public class Human
    public int Id { get; set; }

    public string Name { get; set; }

    public async Task<IEnumerable<Order>> GetOrdersAsync(
        [FromServices] MyDbContext db,
        CancellationToken token,
        [Name("Sort")] SortOrder sortOrder = SortOrder.Date)
        var query = db.Orders.Where(x => x.HumanId == Id);

        if (sortOrder == SortOrder.Date)
            query = query.OrderByDesc(x => x.OrderDate);

        return query.ToListAsync(token);

public enum SortOrder

The above code would generate a GraphQL schema like this:

type Person {
  id: ID!
  name: String!
  orders(sort: SortOrder! = DATE): [Order!]!

CLR field support

CLR fields are not automatically added to graph types, but can be added by overriding the GetRegisteredMembers method of a AutoRegisteringObjectGraphType<T> or AutoRegisteringInputObjectGraphType<T> instance.

Overridable base functionality

The classes can be overridden, providing the ability to customize behavior of automatically generated graph types. For instance, to exclude properties of a certain type, you could write this:

private class CustomAutoObjectType<T> : AutoRegisteringObjectGraphType<T>
    protected override IEnumerable<FieldType> ProvideFields()
        var props = GetRegisteredProperties();
        foreach (var prop in props)
            if (prop.PropertyType != typeof(MyType))
                yield return CreateField(prop);

Similarly, by overriding CreateField you can change the default name, description, graph type, or other information applied to each generated field.

Most of these changes can be performed declaratively by attributes, but by creating a derived class you can change default behavior imperatively without needing to add attributes to all of your data models.

These protected methods can be overridden to provide the following customizations to automatically-generated graph types:

Method Description Typical use
(constructor) Configures graph properties and adds fields Configuring graph after default initialization is complete
ConfigureGraph Configures default graph properties prior to applying attributes Applying a different default naming convention, such as appending "Input" or "Model"
GetRegisteredMembers Returns the set of properties, methods and fields to be automatically configured Filtering internal properties; sorting the property list; including fields; excluding methods
ProvideFields Returns a set of generated fields Adding additional fields to the generated set
CreateField Creates a FieldType from a MemberInfo Applying custom behavior to field generation
GetTypeInformation Parses a CLR type and NRT annotations to return a graph type Use a specific graph type for a certain CLR type
GetArgumentInformation Parses a method argument to return a query argument or expression Return an expression for specific types, such as a user context

Note that if you override GetRegisteredMembers to include private properties or fields for an input graph, you may also need to override ParseDictionary as well.

If you utilize dependency injection within your schema, you can register your custom graph type to be used instead of the built-in type as follows:

services.AddSingleton(typeof(AutoRegisteringObjectGraphType<>), typeof(CustomAutoObjectType<>));

Then any graph type defined as AutoRegisteringObjectGraphType<...> will use your custom type instead.

Graphs, fields and arguments recognize attributes to control initialization behavior

Any attribute that derives from GraphQLAttribute, such as AuthorizeAttribute, can be set on a CLR class or one if its properties, fields, methods or method arguments and is configured for the graph, field type or query argument. New attributes have been updated or added for convenience as follows:

Attribute Description
[Name] Specifies a GraphQL name for a CLR class, member or method parameter
[InputName] Specifies a GraphQL name for an input CLR class, member or method parameter
[OutputName] Specifies a GraphQL name for an output CLR class or member
[InputType] Specifies a graph type for a field on an input model, or for a query argument
[OutputType] Specifies a graph type for a field on an output model
[Ignore] Indicates that a CLR member should not be mapped to a field
[Metadata] Specifies custom metadata to be added to the graph type, field or query argument
[Scoped] For methods, specifies to create a DI service scope during resolver execution
[FromServices] For method parameters, specifies that the argument value should be pulled from DI
[FromSource] For method parameters, specifies that the argument value should be the context 'Source'
[FromUserContext] For method parameters, specifies that the argument value should be the user context
[Authorize] Specifies an authorization policy for the graph type for field
[GraphQLMetadata] Specifies name, description, deprecation reason, or other properties for the graph type or field

Note: [Scoped] is provided through the GraphQL.MicrosoftDI NuGet package.

Custom attributes can be easily added to control any other initialization of graphs, fields or query arguments.

7. More strict behavior of FloatGraphType for special values

This is a spec-compliance issue (bug fix), that fixes parsing of Nan and -/+ Infinity values. The spec says that:

Non-finite floating-point internal values (NaN and Infinity) cannot be coerced to Float and must raise a field error.

8. Support for cancellation at validation stage

With new visitors design from GraphQL-Parser v8 it is possible now to cancel GraphQL request at validation stage before actual execution. DocumentExecuter uses the same cancellation token specified into ExecutionOptions to pass into IDocumentValidator.ValidateAsync.

9. InputObjectGraphType supports ToAST/IsValidDefault

ToAST is supported for InputObjectGraphType and enables printing a code-first schema that uses InputObjectGraphType (ToAST threw NotImplementedException before), i.e. schemas with default input objects can be printed out of the box now. InputObjectGraphType.IsValidDefault now checks all fields on the provided input object value. To revert IsValidDefault to v4 behavior use that snippet:

public override bool IsValidDefault(object value) => value is TSourceType;

10. EnumerationGraphType<T> enhancements

The following new attributes are detected on auto-generated enum graph types:

Attribute Description
[Name] Specifies the name of the enum type or value
[Ignore] Does not add the enum value to the enum type
[Metadata] Adds the specified metadata to enum type or value

As before, you can still use the [Description] or [Obsolete] attributes to add descriptions or deprecation reasons to enum graph types or enum values.

You can also derive from GraphQLAttribute to create your own attributes to modify enum graph types or enum values as they are being built by EnumerationGraphType<T>.

11. Ability to get directives and their arguments values

Now you may get directives along with their arguments that have been provided in the GraphQL query request. New APIs are similar to ones used for field arguments:

Field<StringGraphType>("myField", resolve: context =>
    var dir = ctx.GetDirective("myDirective");
    var arg = dir.GetArgument<string>("arg");

12. The ExecutionStrategy selected for an operation can be configured through IGraphQLBuilder

Previously, in order to change the execution strategy for a specific operation -- for instance, using a serial execution strategy for 'query' operation types -- required creating a custom document executer and overriding the SelectExecutionStrategy method.

Now, for DI configurations, you can call the .AddExecutionStrategy<T>(OperationType) method to provide this configuration without overriding the method. See below for an example.

// === GraphQL.NET v4 ===
public class SerialDocumentExecuter : DocumentExecuter
    public SerialDocumentExecuter(IDocumentBuilder documentBuilder, IDocumentValidator documentValidator, IComplexityAnalyzer complexityAnalyzer, IDocumentCache documentCache, IEnumerable<IConfigureExecutionOptions> configurations)
        : base(documentBuilder, documentValidator, complexityAnalyzer, documentCache, configurations)

    protected override IExecutionStrategy SelectExecutionStrategy(ExecutionContext context)
        return context.Operation.Operation switch
            OperationType.Query => SerialExecutionStrategy.Instance,
            _ => base.SelectExecutionStrategy(context)

// within Startup.cs

// === GraphQL.NET v5 ===

// within Startup.cs
services.AddGraphQL(builder => builder

You can also register your own implementation of IExecutionStrategySelector which can inspect the ExecutionContext to make additional decisions before selecting an execution strategy.

public class MyExecutionStrategySelector : IExecutionStrategySelector
    public virtual IExecutionStrategy Select(ExecutionContext context)
        return context.Operation.Operation switch
            OperationType.Query => ParallelExecutionStrategy.Instance,
            OperationType.Mutation => SerialExecutionStrategy.Instance,
            OperationType.Subscription => SubscriptionExecutionStrategy.Instance,
            _ => throw new InvalidOperationException()

// within Startup.cs
servcies.AddGraphQL(builder => builder
    // other configuration here

The DocumentExecuter.SelectExecutionStrategy method is still available to be overridden for backwards compatibility but may be removed in the next major version.

13. Schema builder and FieldDelegate improvements for reflected methods

When configuring a CLR method for a field, the method arguments now allow the use of all of the new attributes available to AutoRegisteringObjectGraphType, such as [FromServices]. Field resolvers are now precompiled, resulting in faster performance.

As always, when the CLR type is not the source type, the CLR type is pulled from DI. Now the CLR type will be pulled from context.RequestServices to allow for scoped instances. If RequestServices is null, the root DI provider will be used as it was before.

Note that existing methods will require the use of [FromSource] and [FromUserContext] for applicable method arguments.

// v4
class DroidType
    // DI-injected services are always pulled from the root DI provider, so scoped services are not supported
    private readonly Repository _repo;
    public DroidType(Repository repo)
        _repo = repo;

    public int Id(Droid source) => source.Id;

    public IEnumerable<Droid> Friends(Droid source) => _repo.FriendsOf(source.Id);

// v5
class DroidType
    // scoped services are supported, so long as ExecutionOptions.RequestServices is set
    private readonly Repository _repo;
    public DroidType(Repository repo)
        _repo = repo;

    // requires use of [FromSource]
    public int Id([FromSource] Droid source) => source.Id;

    public IEnumerable<Droid> Friends([FromSource] Droid source) => _repo.FriendsOf(source.Id);

// v5 alternate
class DroidType
    public int Id([FromSource] Droid source) => source.Id;

    // only inject Repository where needed
    public IEnumerable<Droid> Friends([FromSource] Droid source, [FromServices] Repository repo) => repo.FriendsOf(source.Id);

Similar changes may be necessary when using FieldDelegate to assign a field resolver.

14. ValueTask support

The execution pipeline has been changed to use ValueTask throughout. To support this change, the following interfaces have been slightly changed to have methods with ValueTask signatures:

  • IFieldResolver
  • IEventStreamResolver (renamed to ISourceStreamResolver) (IAsyncEventStreamResolver has been removed)
  • IFieldMiddleware
  • IValidationRule

This will result in a substantial speed increase for schemas that use field middleware.

In addition, ValueTask<T> return types are supported for fields built on CLR methods via the schema builder, fields built on CLR methods via AutoRegisteringObjectGraphType, and fields built on CLR methods via FieldDelegate.

When manually instantiating a field or subscription resolver, you may use a delegate that return a ValueTask by using new constructors available on the FuncFieldResolver or SourceStreamResolver classes.

15. NameFieldResolver enhanced method support

When adding a field by name only, such as Field<StringGraphType>("Name");, and the field matches a method rather than a property on the source object, the method parameters are parsed similarly to FieldDelegate as noted above with support for query arguments, IResolveFieldContext, [FromServices] and so on.

16. Schemas can be entirely constructed from CLR types

A new builder method AddAutoSchema has been added to allow building a schema entirely from CLR types using the new features within the auto-registering graph types to build the schema. Below is a sample:

// sample configuration of DI
var services = new ServiceCollection();
services.AddGraphQL(b => b
    .AddAutoSchema<Query>(s => s.WithMutation<Mutation>())
var provider = services.BuildServiceProvider();

// sample execution from DI
var result = await provider.GetRequiredService<IDocumentExecuter>().ExecuteAsync(o =>
    o.RequestServices = provider;
    o.Schema = provider.GetRequiredService<ISchema>();
    o.Query = "{hero}";
var resultString = provider.GetRequiredService<IGraphQLTextSerializer>().Serialize(result);
// resultString returns the following JSON: {"data":{"hero":"Luke Skywalker"}}

// sample schema
public class Query
    public static string Hero => "Luke Skywalker";
    public static IEnumerable<Droid> Droids => new Droid[] { new Droid("R2D2"), new Droid("C3PO") };

public class Mutation
    public static string Hero(string name) => name;

public record Droid(string Name);

Subscriptions are supported; interface or union graph types are not currently supported. You may mix the documented "graphtype-first" approach with the CLR types to implement anything not supported by the auto-registering graph types.

17. IGraphQLSerializer implementations support serialization of ExecutionError instances.

Previously, only when serializing an ExecutionResult instance would ExecutionError instances be properly serialized. Now you may serialize a ExecutionError instance directly and it will be handled by the specified IErrorInfoProvider and serialized correctly. This can be useful when implementing the newer graphql-transport-ws WebSockets protocol.

18. IDocumentExecuter<> interface added to better support multiple schema registrations.

To better support user classes based on a specific schema, the IDocumentExecuter<> interface and default implementation has been added which allows for executing a request without specifying the schema in the ExecutionOptions. The execution will pull the schema from dependency injection at run-time, supporting both singleton and scoped schemas. RequestServices is required to be provided.

// sample that executes a request against MySchema
var executer = serviceProvider.GetRequiredService<IDocumentExecuter<MySchema>>();
var options = new ExecutionOptions
    Query = "{hero}",
    RequestServices = serviceProvider,
var result = await executer.ExecuteAsync(options);

19. Subscription support improved

Support for subscriptions has been moved from the GraphQL.SystemReactive nuget package directly into the main GraphQL package. There is no need to use SubscriptionDocumentExecuter (removed), and the default document executer will support subscriptions without overriding SelectExecutionStrategy.

The new implementation of SubscriptionExecutionStrategy supports some new features and bug fixes:

  1. Serial execution of data events' field resolvers is supported by passing an instance of SerialExecutionStrategy to the constructor. As before, parallel execution is default.

  2. Errors and output extensions are returned along with data events.

  3. Memory leaks have been eliminated in the case of errors, output extensions, metrics being enabled, or the use of the context's array pool.

  4. The unhandled exception handler properly handles all error situations that it was designed to.

  5. The System.Reactive nuget reference is not necessary for GraphQL. You may still choose to use System.Reactive nuget package in your library if you wish.

  6. Derived implementations allow for a scoped DI provider during execution of data events. It will be necessary to override ProcessDataAsync and change the ExecutionContext.RequestServices property to a scoped instance before calling base.ProcessDataAsync.

There are a number of other minor issues fixed; see these links for more details:

20. Authorize, AuthorizeWithRoles and AllowAnonymous extension methods added in GraphQL 5.1.0 and 5.1.1

AuthorizeWithRoles allows for specifying roles rather than just policies that can be used to validate a request. Authorize can be used to specify that only authentication is required, without specifying any specific roles or policies. AllowAnonymous typically indicates that anonymous access should be allowed to a field of a graph type requiring authorization, providing that no other fields were selected. As with AuthorizeWithPolicy (renamed from AuthorizeWith), these new methods require support by a third-party library to perform the validation.

Similar to the ASP.NET Core AuthorizeAttribute, the new AuthorizeWithRoles method accepts a comma-separated list of role names that would allow access to the graph or field.


You may also supply a list of strings as in the following example:

graph.AuthorizeWithRoles("Administrators", "Managers");

For schema-first and "type-first" graphs, the [GraphQLAuthorize] has been updated to support roles and can now be used without any policy or role names, and an [AllowAnonymous] attribute has been added.

21. RequestServices added to ValidationContext in GraphQL 5.1.0

This allows for validation rules to access scoped services if necessary.

Breaking Changes

1. UnhandledExceptionDelegate

ExecutionOptions.UnhandledExceptionDelegate and IExecutionContext.UnhandledExceptionDelegate properties type was changed from Action<UnhandledExceptionContext> to Func<UnhandledExceptionContext, Task> so now you may use async/await for exception handling. In this regard, some methods in ExecutionStrategy were renamed to have Async suffix.

2. IDocumentCache now has asynchronous methods instead of synchronous methods.

The default get/set property of the interface has been replaced with GetAsync and SetAsync methods. Keys cannot be removed by setting a null value as they could before.

To clarify and differ output extensions from input extensions, IResolveFieldContext.Extensions has now been renamed to OutputExtensions. The GetExtension and SetExtension thread-safe extension methods have also been renamed to GetOutputExtension and SetOutputExtension respectively.

4. ExecutionOptions.Inputs and ValidationContext.Inputs properties renamed to Variables

To better align the execution options and variable context with the specification, the Inputs property containing the execution variables has now been renamed to Variables.

5. ConfigureExecution GraphQL builder method renamed to ConfigureExecutionOptions

Also, IConfigureExecution renamed to IConfigureExecutionOptions.

6. AddGraphQL now accepts a configuration delegate instead of returning IGraphQLBuilder

In order to prevent default implementations from ever being registered in the DI engine, the AddGraphQL method now accepts a configuration delegate where you can configure the GraphQL.NET DI components. To support this change, the GraphQLBuilder constructor now requires a configuration delegate parameter and will execute the delegate before calling GraphQLBuilderBase.RegisterDefaultServices.

This requires a change similar to the following:

// v4

// v5
services.AddGraphQL(builder => builder

7. GraphQLExtensions.BuildNamedType was renamed and moved to SchemaTypes.BuildGraphQLType

8. GraphQLBuilderBase.Initialize was renamed to RegisterDefaultServices

9. ExecutionHelper.GetArgumentValues was renamed to GetArguments

10. DirectiveGraphType was renamed to Directive

11. schema, variableDefinitions and variables arguments were removed from ValidationContext.GetVariableValues

Use ValidationContext.Schema, ValidationContext.Operation.Variables and ValidationContext.Variables properties

12. ValidationContext.OperationName was changed to ValidationContext.Operation

13. All arguments from IDocumentValidator.ValidateAsync were wrapped into ValidationOptions struct

14. All methods from IGraphQLBuilder were moved into IServiceRegister interface

Use IGraphQLBuilder.Services property if you need to register services into DI container. If you use provided extension methods upon IGraphQLBuilder then your code does not require any changes.

15. Changes caused by GraphQL-Parser v8

  • The GraphQL.Language.AST namespace and all classes from it have been removed in favor of ones from GraphQLParser.AST namespace in GraphQL-Parser project. Examples of changed usages:

    • GraphQL.Language.AST.Document -> GraphQLParser.AST.GraphQLDocument
    • GraphQL.Language.AST.IValue -> GraphQLParser.AST.GraphQLValue
    • GraphQL.Language.AST.Field -> GraphQLParser.AST.GraphQLField
    • GraphQL.Language.AST.SelectionSet -> GraphQLParser.AST.GraphQLSelectionSet
    • GraphQL.Language.AST.IHaveDirectives -> GraphQLParser.AST.IHasDirectivesNode
    • GraphQL.Language.AST.IType -> GraphQLParser.AST.GraphQLType
  • Some APIs utilize GraphQLParser.ROM struct instead of string:

    • ExecutionResult.Query
    • Metrics.SetOperationName
    • IComplexGraphType.GetField
    • QueryArguments.Find
    • SchemaDirectives.Find
    • SchemaDirectives.this[]
    • SchemaDirectives.Dictionary
    • ValidationContext.GetFragment
    • All ValidationError's constructors take originalQuery as ROM
  • OperationType and DirectiveLocation enums were removed, use enums from GraphQLParser.AST namespace
  • SourceLocation struct was removed, use GraphQLLocation from GraphQLParser.AST namespace
  • CoreToVanillaConverter class was removed
  • ErrorLocation struct was removed, use Location from GraphQLParser namespace
  • ValidationContext.GetFragment method was removed, use ValidationContext.Document.FindFragmentDefinition
  • IResolveFieldContext.SubFields and IExecutionStrategy.GetSubFields returns dictionary with values of tuple of queried field and its field definition
  • All scalars works with GraphQLParser.AST.GraphQLValue instead of GraphQL.Language.AST.IValue
  • IInputObjectGraphType.ToAST returns GraphQLParser.AST.GraphQLObjectValue instead of GraphQL.Language.AST.IValue

16. Classes and members marked as obsolete have been removed

The following classes and members that were marked with [Obsolete] in v4 have been removed:

Class or member Notes
GraphQL.NewtonsoftJson.StringExtensions.ToDictionary Use Read or Deserialize instead
GraphQL.SystemTextJson.ObjectDictionaryConverter Use InputsJsonConverter instead
GraphQL.SystemTextJson.StringExtensions.ToDictionary Use Read or Deserialize instead
GraphQL.Builders.ConnectionBuilder.Unidirectional Unidirectional is default and does not need to be called
GraphQL.IDocumentExecutionListener.BeforeExecutionAwaitedAsync Use IDataLoaderResult interface instead
GraphQL.IDocumentExecutionListener.BeforeExecutionStepAwaitedAsync Use IDataLoaderResult interface instead

Various classes' properties in the GraphQL.Language.AST namespace are now read-only instead of read-write, such as Field.Alias.

Various classes' constructors in the GraphQL.Language.AST namespace have been removed in favor of other constructors.

As such, the DocumentWriter classes have been renamed to GraphQLSerializer, and the AddDocumentWriter extension method for IGraphQLBuilder has been renamed to AddSerializer. The WriteAsync method's functionality has not changed.

18. Extension methods for parsing variables (e.g. ToInputs) have been removed.

Please use the Read<Inputs>() method of an IGraphQLSerializer implementation, or the Deserialize<Inputs>() method of an IGraphQLTextSerializer implementation. Note that these methods will return null if a null string or the string "null" is passed to them. The ExecutionOptions.Variables property does not require Inputs.Empty, but if you have tests based on the .ToInputs() extension method, you may want a direct replacement. Equivalent code to the previous functionality is as follows:

using GraphQL;
using GraphQL.SystemTextJson;

public static class StringExtensions
    private static readonly GraphQLSerializer _serializer = new();

    public static Inputs ToInputs(string json)
        => json == null ? Inputs.Empty : _serializer.Deserialize<Inputs>(json) ?? Inputs.Empty;

    public static Inputs ToInputs(System.Text.Json.JsonElement element)
        => _serializer.ReadNode<Inputs>(element) ?? Inputs.Empty;

    public static T FromJson<T>(string json)
        => _serializer.Deserialize<T>(json);

    public static System.Threading.Tasks.ValueTask<T> FromJsonAsync<T>(this System.IO.Stream stream, System.Threading.CancellationToken cancellationToken = default)
        => _serializer.ReadAsync<T>(stream, cancellationToken);

The new Read and Deserialize methods of the Newtonsoft.Json implementation will default to reading dates as strings unless configured otherwise in the settings.

19. The WriteToStringAsync extension methods have been removed.

Please use the Serialize() method of an IGraphQLTextSerializer implementation. The asynchronous text serialization methods have been removed as the underlying serialization providers execute synchronously when serializing to a string.

The WriteAsync() method can be used to asynchronously serialize to a stream. However, the Newtonsoft.Json serializer does not support asynchronous serialization, so synchronous calls are made to the underlying stream. Only System.Text.Json supports asynchronous writing.

20. Other changes to the serialization infrastructure

  • InputsConverter renamed to InputsJsonConverter
  • ExecutionResultContractResolver renamed to GraphQLContractResolver

21. GraphQLMetadataAttribute cannot be applied to graph type classes

The [GraphQLMetadata] attribute is designed to be used for schema-first configurations and has not changed in this regard. For code-first graph definitions, please set the GraphQL type name within the constructor.

//[GraphQLMetadata("Person")] //previously supported
public class HumanType : ObjectGraphType<Human>
    public HumanType()
        Name = "Person"; //correct implementation

22. AstPrinter class was removed

AstPrinter class was removed in favor of SDLPrinter from GraphQL-Parser project.

Code before changes:

INode node = ...;
string s = AstPrinter.Print(node);

Code after changes:

ASTNode node = ...;
var writer = new StringWriter();
var printer = new SDLPrinter();
sdlPrinter.PrintAsync(node, writer).GetAwaiter().GetResult(); // actually is sync
string s = writer.ToString();

SDLPrinter is a highly optimized visitor for asynchronous non-blocking SDL output into provided TextWriter. In the majority of cases it does not allocate memory in the managed heap at all.

23. Possible breaking changes in InputObjectGraphType<TSourceType>

InputObjectGraphType<TSourceType>.ToAST and InputObjectGraphType<TSourceType>.IsValidDefault methods were changed in such a way that now you may be required to also override ToAST if you override ParseDictionary. Changes in those methods are made for earlier error detection and schema printing.

24. AutoRegisteringObjectGraphType changes

The protected method GetRegisteredProperties has been renamed to GetRegisteredMembers and now supports properties, methods and fields, although fields are not included with the default implementation. Override the method in a derived class to include fields.

New for v5, methods are included by default. To revert to v4 behavior, which does not include methods, create a derived class as follows:

public class AutoRegisteringObjectGraphTypeWithoutMethods<T> : AutoRegisteringObjectGraphType<T>
    public AutoRegisteringObjectGraphTypeWithoutMethods() : base() { }
    public AutoRegisteringObjectGraphTypeWithoutMethods(params Expression<Func<T, object?>>[]? excludedProperties) : base(excludedProperties) { }
    protected override IEnumerable<MemberInfo> GetRegisteredMembers() => base.GetRegisteredMembers().Where(x => x is PropertyInfo);

Register this class within your DI engine like this:

services.AddTransient(typeof(AutoRegisteringObjectGraphType<>), typeof(AutoRegisteringObjectGraphTypeWithoutMethods<>));

25. AutoRegisteringInputObjectGraphType changes

The protected method GetRegisteredProperties has been renamed to GetRegisteredMembers and now supports returning both properties and fields, although fields are not included with the default implementation. Override the method in a derived class to include fields.

26. EnumerationGraphType parses exact names

Consider GraphQL enum Color { RED GREEN BLUE } and corresponding EnumerationGraphType. In v4 ParseValue("rED") yields internal value for RED name. In v5 this behavior was changed and ParseValue("rED") throws error Unable to convert 'rED' to the scalar type 'Color'.

27. EnumerationGraphType.AddValue changes

description argument from EnumerationGraphType.AddValue method was marked as optional and moved after value argument. If you use this method and set descriptions, you will need to change the order of arguments. Since changing the order of arguments in some cases can remain invisible to the caller and lead to hardly detected bugs, the method name has been changed from AddValue to Add.

28. The settings class provided to GraphQL.NewtonsoftJson.GraphQLSerializer has changed.

Previously the settings class used was Newtonsoft.Json.JsonSerializerSettings. Now the class is GraphQL.NewtonsoftJson.JsonSerializerSettings. The class inherits from the former class, but sets the default date parsing behavior set to 'none'.

29. Schema builder CLR types' method arguments require [FromSource] and [FromUserContext] where applicable

See New Features: 'Schema builder and FieldDelegate improvements for reflected methods' above.

30. FieldDelegate method arguments require [FromSource] and [FromUserContext] where applicable

See New Features: 'Schema builder and FieldDelegate improvements for reflected methods' above.

31. Code removed to support prior implementation of FieldDelegate and schema builder

The following classes and methods have been removed:

  • The EventStreamResolver implementation which accepted an IAccessor as a construtor parameter.
  • The AsyncEventStreamResolver implementation which accepted an IAccessor as a construtor parameter.
  • The DelegateFieldModelBinderResolver class.
  • The ReflectionHelper.BuildArguments method.

You may use the following classes and methods as replacements:

  • The MemberResolver class is an IFieldResolver implementation for a property, method or field. Expressions are passed to the constructor for the instance (and if applicable, method arguments), which is immediately compiled.
  • The SourceStreamMethodResolver class is an ISourceStreamResolver (previously IEventStreamResolver) implementation for a method that returns an IObservable<T> or Task<IObservable<T>>. It also provides a basic IFieldResolver implementation for subscription fields.
  • The AutoRegisteringHelper.BuildFieldResolver method builds a field resolver around a specifed property, method or field.
  • The AutoRegisteringHelper.BuildEventStreamResolver method builds an event stream resolver around a specified method.

32. ValueTask execution pipeline support changes

The following interfaces have been modified to support a ValueTask pipeline:

  • IFieldResolver
  • ISourceStreamResolver (previously IEventStreamResolver)
  • IFieldMiddleware and FieldMiddlewareDelegate
  • IValidationRule

The following interfaces have been removed:

  • IAsyncEventStreamResolver

All classes which implemented the above interfaces have been modified as necessary:

  • AsyncSourceStreamResolver (previously AsyncEventStreamResolver)
  • AsyncFieldResolver
  • ExpressionFieldResolver
  • FuncFieldResolver
  • InstrumentFieldsMiddleware
  • NameFieldResolver
  • SourceStreamResolver (previously EventStreamResolver)
  • All built-in validation rules

These properties have been removed:

  • EventStreamFieldType.AsyncSubscriber (note: the EventStreamFieldType class was removed and the Subscriber property moved to the FieldType class)
  • FieldConfig.AsyncSubscriber

Any direct implementation of these interfaces or classes derived from the above list will need to be modified to fit the new design.

In addition, it is required that any asynchronous fields must use an appropriate asynchronous field builder method or asynchronous field resolver, and inferred methods (built by the schema builder, FieldDelegate, or AutoRegisteringObjectGraphType) must be strongly typed.

// works in v4, not in v5 (throws in runtime)
Field<CharacterInterface>("hero", resolve: context => data.GetDroidByIdAsync("3"));

// works in v4 or v5
FieldAsync<CharacterInterface>("hero", resolve: async context => await data.GetDroidByIdAsync("3"));

// works in v4, not in v5
AddField(new FieldType
    Name = "hero",
    Resolver = new FuncFieldResolver<Task<Droid>>(context => data.GetDroidByIdAsync("3")),

// works in v4 or v5
AddField(new FieldType
    Name = "hero",
    Resolver = new AsyncFieldResolver<Droid>(context => data.GetDroidByIdAsync("3")),

// works in v4, not in v5
Func<IResolveFieldContext, string, object> func = (context, id) => data.GetDroidByIdAsync(id);
    arguments: new QueryArguments(
        new QueryArgument<NonNullGraphType<StringGraphType>> { Name = "id", Description = "id of the droid" }
    resolve: func

// works in v4 or v5
Func<IResolveFieldContext, string, Task<Droid>> func = (context, id) => data.GetDroidByIdAsync(id);
    arguments: new QueryArguments(
        new QueryArgument<NonNullGraphType<StringGraphType>> { Name = "id", Description = "id of the droid" }
    resolve: func

33. IResolveEventStreamContext interface and ResolveEventStreamContext class removed

Please use the IResolveFieldContext interface and the ResolveFieldContext class instead. No other changes are required.

34. EventStreamFieldType class removed

Please use FieldType instead. The Subscriber property has been moved to the FieldType class so no other changes should be required. The AsyncSubscriber property has been removed as described above.

35. IEventStreamResolver<T> interface removed

For custom resolver implementations, please implement ISourceStreamResolver (previously IEventStreamResolver) interface instead.

36. Asynchronous field resolver classes have been removed

These classes have been removed:

  • ScopedAsyncFieldResolver
  • AsyncFieldResolver
  • AsyncEventStreamResolver

Please use the new ValueTask-based constructors on ScopedFieldResolver, FuncFieldResolver and SourceStreamResolver (previously EventStreamResolver) instead.

// v4
var resolver = new AsyncFieldResolver<string>(async context => await GetSomeString());

// v5
var resolver = new FuncFieldResolver<string>(async context => await GetSomeString());

// v4
Func<IResolveFieldContext, Task<string>> func = async context => await GetSomeString();
var resolver = new AsyncFieldResolver(func);

// v5 option 1
Func<IResolveFieldContext, ValueTask<string>> func = async context => await GetSomeString();
var resolver = new FuncFieldResolver(func);

// v5 option 2
Func<IResolveFieldContext, Task<string>> func = async context => await GetSomeString();
var resolver = new FuncFieldResolver(context => new ValueTask<string>(func(context)));

// v5 option 3
Func<IResolveFieldContext, Task<string>> func = async context => await GetSomeString();
var resolver = new FuncFieldResolver(async context => await func(context));

Field builder methods have not changed and still require a Task<T> return value for asynchronous field resolver delegates.

37. NameFieldResolver implementation supports methods with arguments; may cause AmbigiousMatchException

The NameFieldResolver, used when adding a field by name (e.g. Field<StringGraphType>("Name");), now supports methods with arguments. During resolver execution, it first looks for a matching property with the specified name, and if none is found, looks for a method with the matching name. Since it now supports methods with arguments as well as methods without arguments, an AmbigiousMatchException can occur if the name refers to a public method with multiple overloads. Either specify a field resolver explicitly, or reduce the number of public methods with the same name to one.

38. SchemaTypes updated to support DI-injected mapping providers

  • Initialize method signature changed to include DI-injected mappings.

  • GetGraphTypeFromClrType method signature changed to include DI-injected mappings. Rather than a list of CLR to graph type tuples provided to the method, now a list of IGraphTypeMappingProvider instances is provided.

39. ExecutionResultJsonConverter does not handle ExecutionError.

If you directly create an instance of ExecutionResultJsonConverter and adding it to a set of serializer options, you will now need to also add ExecutionErrorJsonConverter also. The IErrorInfoProvider instance previously passed to the ExecutionResultJsonConverter will need to be passed to the ExecutionErrorJsonConverter instead. Typically no changes are necessary to user code for this API change.

40. Subscription document executer removed

Subscription support is provided by the DocumentExecuter implementation without the need to use SubscriptionDocumentExecuter or override DocumentExecuter.SelectExecutionStrategy. You may also remove references to the IGraphQLBuilder.AddSubscriptionDocumentExecuter method.

41. Subscription nuget package removed

Subscription support has been moved into the main project. If you have a need to reference SubscriptionExecutionStrategy, it now exists within the GraphQL nuget package. You will need to remove references to the GraphQL.SystemReactive nuget package.

42. SubscriptionExecutionResult class removed

The SubscriptionExecutionResult.Streams property has been moved to the ExecutionResult class. Please use the ExecutionResult class rather than the SubscriptionExecutionResult class.

43. DateTimeOffsetGraphType does not adjust to UTC

Previously any ISO-8601 date/time values were converted to UTC before being returned in a DateTimeOffset value from the DateTimeOffsetGraphType. This results in a loss of information that was provided to the GraphQL request. In v5, the time offset is preserved.

Although typically DateTimeOffset values are not assumed to be in any specific time zone, if your code does so, you may need to make changes to your code or implement a custom scalar to replace the default scalar.

You may be affected by this change if you use certain versions of Npgsql. See https://www.npgsql.org/doc/types/datetime.html

44. OverlappingFieldsCanBeMerged validation rule enabled by default

Previously this rule, part of the GraphQL specification, was not enabled by default; in GraphQL.NET v5 it is enabled by default as part of the DocumentValidator.CoreRules list.

45. Subscription methods, classes and interfaces renamed

  • IEventStreamResolver is now ISourceStreamResolver
  • EventStreamResolver is now SourceStreamResolver
  • IAsyncEventStreamResolver and AsyncEventStreamResolver have been removed
  • IEventStreamResolver.Subscriber is now ISourceStreamResolver.ResolveAsync
  • Field builder Subscribe and SubscribeAsync methods are now ResolveStream and ResolveStreamAsync

46. ValidationContext.GetRecursiveVariables returns null instead of an empty list

This was done for the purposes of the overall strategy for reducing memory consumption.

47. AuthorizeWith renamed to AuthorizeWithPolicy in 5.1.0

This change was made to clarify and differentiate between AuthorizeWithRoles.

48. GraphQLAuthorizeAttribute renamed to AuthorizeAttribute in 5.1.1

This change was made to align with the rest of the attributes' names.